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    Synonyms: b-Aminoethyl alcohol; colamine; ethylolamine; b-hydroxyethylamine; 2-hydroxyethylamine.

    Description: Monoethanolamine is a clear, colorless or pale yellow-colored, moderately viscous liquid with a mild, ammoniacal odor.

    Chemical Name: 2-Aminoethanol

    Alkalizing agent; emulsifying agent.

    • Monoethanolamine is used primarily in pharmaceutical formulations for buffering purposes and in the preparation of emulsions.

    • Other uses include as a solvent for fats and oils and as a stabilizing agent in an injectable dextrose solution of phenytoin sodium.

    • Monoethanolamine is also used to produce a variety of salts with therapeutic uses. For example, a salt of monoethanolamine with vitamin C is used for intramuscular injection, while the salicylate and undecenoate monoethanolamine salts are utilized respectively in the treatment of rheumatism and as an antifungal agent.

    • However, the most common therapeutic use of monoethanolamine is in the production of ethanolamine oleate injection, which is used as a sclerosing agent.

    Monoethanolamine contains both a hydroxy group and a primary amine group and will thus undergo reactions characteristic of both alcohols and amines. Ethanolamines will react with acids to form salts and esters. Discoloration and precipitation will take place in the presence of salts of heavy metals. Monoethanolamine reacts with acids, acid anhydrides, acid chlorides, and esters to form amide derivatives, and with propylene carbonate or other cyclic carbonates to give the corresponding carbonates.

    Monoethanolamine is an irritant, caustic material, but when it is used in neutralized parenteral and topical pharmaceutical formulations it is not usually associated with adverse effects, although hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. Monoethanolamine salts are generally regarded as being less toxic than monoethanolamine.

    When handling concentrated solutions of monoethanolamine, personal protective equipment such as an appropriate respirator, chemically resistant gloves, safety goggles, and other protective clothing should be worn. Transfer or prepare monoethanolamine solutions only in a chemical fume hood. Vapors may flow along surfaces to distant ignition sources and flash back. Closed containers exposed to heat may explode. Contact with strong oxidizers may cause fire.

    Diethanolamine; triethanolamine.