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Isopropyl Alcohol

    Synonyms: Alcohol isopropylicus; dimethyl carbinol; IPA; isopropanol; petrohol; 2-propanol; sec-propyl alcohol; rubbing alcohol.

    Description:Isopropyl alcohol is a clear, colorless, mobile, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic, spirituous odor resembling that of a mixture of ethanol and acetone; it has a slightly bitter taste.

    Chemical Name: Propan-2-ol

    Disinfectant; solvent.

    • Isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol) is used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical formulations, primarily as a solvent in topical formulations.

    • It is not recommended for oral use owing to its toxicity. Although it is used in lotions, the marked degreasing properties of isopropyl alcohol may limit its usefulness in preparations used repeatedly.

    • Isopropyl alcohol is also used as a solvent both for tablet film-coating and for tablet granulation, where the isopropyl alcohol is subsequently removed by evaporation.

    • It has also been shown to significantly increase the skin permeability of nimesulide from carbomer 934.

    • Isopropyl alcohol has some antimicrobial activity (see Section 10) and a 70% v/v aqueous solution is used as a topical disinfectant.

    • Therapeutically, isopropyl alcohol has been investigated for the treatment of postoperative nausea or vomiting

    Incompatible with oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid, which cause decomposition. Isopropyl alcohol may be salted out from aqueous mixtures by the addition of sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and other salts, or by the addition of sodium hydroxide.

    Isopropyl alcohol is widely used in cosmetics and topical pharmaceutical formulations. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and may be slowly absorbed through intact skin. Prolonged direct exposure of isopropyl alcohol to the skin may result in cardiac and neurological deficits. In neonates, isopropyl alcohol has been reported to cause chemical burns following topical application. Isopropyl alcohol is metabolized more slowly than ethanol, primarily to acetone. Metabolites and unchanged isopropyl alcohol are mainly excreted in the urine.

    Observe normal precautions appropriate to the circumstances and quantity of material handled. Isopropyl alcohol may be irritant to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes upon inhalation. Eye protection and gloves are recommended. Isopropyl alcohol should be handled in a well-ventilated environment.