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Disodium Edetate

    Synonyms: Dinatrii edetas; disodium EDTA; disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate; edathamil disodium; edetate disodium; edetic acid, disodium salt.

    Description: Disodium edetate occurs as a white crystalline, odorless powder with a slightly acidic taste.

    Chemical Name: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, disodium salt 
    Disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate dihydrate

    Chelating agent. Chelating Agent

    • Disodium edetate is used as a chelating agent in a wide range of pharmaceutical preparations, including mouthwashes, ophthalmic preparations, and topical preparations, typically at concentrations between 0.005 and 0.1% w/v.

    • Disodium edetate forms stable water-soluble complexes (chelates) with alkaline earth and heavy-metal ions.

    • The chelated form has few of the properties of the free ion, and for this reason chelating agents are often described as ‘removing’ ions from solution, a process known as sequestering.

    • The stability of the metal–edetate complex is dependent on the metal ion involved and the pH.

    • Disodium edetate is also used as a water softener as it will chelate calcium and magnesium ions present in hard water.

    • It is also used therapeutically as an anticoagulant as it will chelate calcium and prevent the coagulation of blood in vitro.

    • Concentrations of 0.1% w/v are used in small volumes for hematological testing and 0.3% w/v in transfusions.

    Disodium edetate behaves as a weak acid, displacing carbon dioxide from carbonates and reacting with metals to form hydrogen. It is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, metal ions, and metal alloys.

    Disodium edetate is used widely in topical, oral, and parenteral pharmaceutical formulations; it is used extensively in cosmetic and food products. Disodium edetate and edetate calcium disodium are used in a greater number and variety of pharmaceutical formulations than is edetic acid. Both disodium edetate and edetate calcium disodium are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and are associated with few adverse effects when used as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Observe normal precautions appropriate to the circumstances and quantity of material handled. Disodium edetate and its derivatives are mild irritants to the mucous membranes. Eye protection, gloves, and dust masks are recommended

    Edetic acid.