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Calcium Chloride

    Synonyms:  Calcii chloridum dihydricum; calcii chloridum hexahydricum.

    Description: Calcium chloride occurs as a white or colorless crystalline powder, granules, or crystalline mass, and is hygroscopic (deliquescent).

    Chemical Name: Calcium chloride anhydrous

    Calcium chloride dihydrate

    Calcium chloride hexahydrate

    Antimicrobial preservative; therapeutic agent; water-absorbing agent.

    • The main applications of calcium chloride as an excipient relate to its dehydrating properties and, therefore, it has been used as an antimicrobial preservative, as a desiccant, and as an astringent in eye lotions.

    • Therapeutically, calcium chloride injection 10% (as the dihydrate form) is used to treat hypocalcemia.

    Calcium chloride is incompatible with soluble carbonates, phosphates, sulfates, and tartrates. It reacts violently with bromine trifluoride, and a reaction with zinc releases explosive hydrogen gas. It has an exothermic reaction with water, and when heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of chlorine.

    Calcium chloride is used in topical, ophthalmic, and injection preparations. The pure form of calcium chloride is toxic by intravenous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes, and moderately toxic by ingestion, causing stomach and heart disturbances. It is a severe eye irritant and can cause dermatitis.

    Observe normal precautions appropriate to the circumstances and quantity of the material handled. Calcium chloride is irritating to eyes, the respiratory system, and skin. Gloves, eye protection, respirator, and other protective clothing should be worn.