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Ammonium Chloride

    Synonyms: Ammonii chloridum; ammonium muriate; E510; sal ammoniac; salmiac.

    Description: Ammonium chloride occurs as colorless, odorless crystals or crystal masses. It is a white, granular powder with a cooling, saline taste. It is hygroscopic and has a tendency to cake.

    Chemical Name: Ammonium chloride

    Acidifying agent; therapeutic agent.

    • Ammonium chloride is used as an acidifying agent in oral formulations.
    • It is also used as a food additive and antiseptic agent.
    • Ammonium chloride is used in the treatment of severe metabolic alkalosis to maintain the urine at an acid pH in the treatment of some urinary tract disorders or in forced acid diuresis.
    • It is also used as an expectorant in cough medicines.

    Ammonium chloride is incompatible with strong acids and strong bases. It reacts violently with ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate, causing fire and explosion hazards. It also attacks copper and its compounds.

    Ammonium chloride is used in oral pharmaceutical formulations. The pure form of ammonium chloride is toxic by SC, IV, and IM routes, and moderately toxic by other routes. Potential symptoms of overexposure to fumes are irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system: cough, dyspnea, and pulmonary sensitization. Ammonium salts are an irritant to the gastric mucosa and may induce nausea and vomiting.

    Observe normal precautions appropriate to the circumstances and quantity of the material handled. All grades of ammonium chloride must be kept well away from nitrites and nitrates during transport and storage. They must be stored in a dry place, and effluent must not be discharged into the drains without prior treatment. Ammonium chloride decomposes on heating, producing toxic and irritating fumes (nitrogen oxides, ammonia, and hydrogen chloride).

    Ammonia solution.