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Ammonia Solution

    Synonyms: Ammoniaca; ammoniacum; ammoniae solution concentrata; aqua ammonia; concentrated ammonia solution; spirit of hartshorn; stronger ammonia water.

    Description: Strong ammonia solution occurs as a clear, colorless liquid having an exceedingly pungent, characteristic odor. The PhEur 6.0 states that concentrated ammonia solution contains not less than 25.0% and not more than 30.0% w/w of ammonia (NH3).

    Chemical Name: Ammonia

    • Ammonia solution is typically not used undiluted in pharmaceutical applications.
    • Generally, it is used as a buffering agent or to adjust the pH of solutions.
    • Most commonly, ammonia solution (theconcentrated form) is used to produce more dilute ammonia solutions.
    • Therapeutically, dilute ammonia solution is used as a reflex stimulant in ‘smelling salts’, as a rubefacient, and as a counterirritant to neutralize insect bites or stings.

    Ammonia solution reacts vigorously with sulfuric acid or other strong mineral acids and the reaction generates considerable heat; the mixture boils

    Ingestion of strong solutions of ammonia is very harmful and causes severe pain in the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal tract as well as severe local edema with cough, vomiting, and shock. Burns to the esophagus and stomach may result in perforation.

    Observe normal precautions appropriate to the circumstances and quantity of material handled. Care should be used in handling strong or concentrated ammonia solutions because of the caustic nature of the solution and the irritating properties of its vapor. Before containers are opened, they should be well cooled. The closure should be covered with a cloth or similar material while opening.

    Dilute ammonia solution