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    Synonyms: Ethanolum (96 per centum); ethyl alcohol; ethyl hydroxide; grain alcohol; methyl carbinol.

    Description: In the Pharmaceutical Excipients, the term ‘alcohol’ is used for either ethanol 95% v/v or ethanol 96% v/v.  Alcohol is a clear, colorless, mobile, and volatile liquid with a slight, characteristic odor and burning taste.

    Chemical Name:  Serum albumin

    Antimicrobial preservative; disinfectant; skin penetrant; solvent

    • Ethanol and aqueous ethanol solutions of various concentrations are widely used in pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics.
    • Although ethanol is primarily used as a solvent, it is also employed as a disinfectant, and in solutions as an antimicrobial preservative.
    • Topical ethanol solutions are used in the development of transdermal drug delivery systems as penetration enhancers.
    • Ethanol has also been used in the development of transdermal preparations as a co-surfactant.

    In acidic conditions, ethanol solutions may react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Mixtures with alkali may darken in color owing to a reaction with residual amounts of aldehyde . Organicsalts or acacia may be precipitated from aqueous solutions or dispersions. Ethanol solutions are also incompatible with aluminum containers and may interact with some drugs.

    Ethanol and aqueous ethanol solutions are widely used in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics. It is also consumed in alcoholic beverages.

    Ethanol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and the vapor may be absorbed through the lungs; it is metabolized, mainly in the liver, to acetaldehyde, which is further oxidized to acetate.

    Observe normal precautions appropriate to the circumstances and quantity of material handled. Ethanol and aqueous ethanol solutions should be handled in a well-ventilated environment.

    Dehydrated alcohol; denatured alcohol; dilute alcohol; isopropyl alcohol.